Citekey: @Black1998a

Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 5(1), 7–74. doi:10.1080/0969595980050102


A comprehensive review of the effectiveness of feedback in classrooms.


ABSTRACT This article is a review of the literature on classroom formative assessment. Several studies show firm evidence that innovations designed to strengthen the frequent feedback that students receive about their learning yield substantial learning gains. The perceptions of students and their role in self-assessment are considered alongside analysis of the strategies used by teachers and the formative strategies incorporated in such systemic approaches as mastery learning. There follows a more detailed and theoretical analysis of the nature of feedback, which provides a basis for a discussion of the development of theoretical models for formative assessment and of the prospects for the improvement of practice. (p. 2)

The principal reason for this is that the term formative assessment does not have a tightly defined and widely accepted meaning. In this review, it is to be interpreted as encompassing all those activities undertaken by teachers, and/or by their students, which provide information to be used as feedback to modify the (p. 2)

teaching and learning activities in which they are engaged. (p. 3)

Examples in Evidence (p. 5)

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Bodong Chen, University of Minnesota

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